ʻOkatoba 23: Ka Make ʻAna o R.W. Wilikoki

October 23, 1903: Death of Robert Wilcox

Robert W. Wilcox in Italy, c. 1866. Photo credits: Hawaiʻi State Archives available online in Agnes Quigg, Kalākaua’s Hawaiian Studies Abroad Program, 22 Haw. J. Hist. 170, 173 (1988) (http://hdl.handle.net/10524/103).

Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox, famously known as the Liona Hae o ka Pakipika (The Pacific’s Roaring Lion) and the “Iron Duke of Hawaiʻi,” was the son of an American father from New England and a mother descended from Maui royalty. He was educated at the Turin Military Academy in Italy under King Kalākaua’s Study Abroad program. See Agnes Quigg, Kalākaua’s Hawaiian Studies Abroad Program, 22 Haw. J. Hist. 170, 173 (1988) (http://hdl.handle.net/10524/103). He famously led uprisings in 1889 and 1895.  See Ka Buke Moolelo o Robert William Wilikoki (Thos. K. Nakanela ed., 1890); Ka Hoʻokahuli Aupuni Kaulana o 1893: Kaua Kūloko ma Honolulu, Ianuari 7, 1895 (Papapai Mahu Press Pub. Co., 1895). Later, Wilcox was elected as the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaiʻi. Continue reading “ʻOkatoba 23: Ka Make ʻAna o R.W. Wilikoki”

ʻOkatoba 2018: Mahina Hoʻomanaʻo Waihona Palapala Kahiko

October 2018: Archives Month

On September 16, 2018, Governor David Ige and Lieutenant Governor Douglas Chin proclaimed October 2018 as “Archives Month.” Ige and Chin urged the people of Hawaiʻi to join them in “discovering the numerous treasures contained in the many archives and special collections across the islands and recognizing the important resources archives provide.”

As described by the Hawaiʻi State Archives, American Archives Month is celebrated nationwide in October “to raise awareness about the value of archives and the importance of archivists.” Specifically:

Archives Month is a time to focus on the importance of records of enduring value and to enhance public recognition for the people and programs that are responsible for maintaining our communities’ vital historical records. Archival records are essential in supporting society’s increasing demand for accountability and transparency in government and public and private institutions. They protect the rights, property, and identity of our citizens.

A copy of the proclamation is below.

Available online: Governor Proclamations – October 2018 (https://governor.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/10-1-18-Archives-Month-Proc.pdf).


ʻOkatoba 19: Kuʻikahi me Denemaka

October 19, 1846: Treaty with Denmark

On June 23, 1845, the Danish warship Galathea, commanded by Captain Steen Andersen Bille, left Copenhagen to embark on a voyage around the world. Jorgen Jensen, A Danish Sailor’s View of Hawaiʻi in 1846, 30 Haw. J. Hist. 105 (1996) (available online). Captain Bille was given a number of tasks to complete on this journey, including, for example, the appointment of Danish consuls in commercially strategically advantageous locations.  With regard to Hawaiʻi, Captain Bille was instructed to negotiate and obtain a “most-favored-nation” agreement.  Captain Bille arrived in Honolulu in October of 1846.

On October 19, 1846, treaty negotiations were successfully concluded and the requisite “most favored nation clause” was included as part of the Danish Treaty. This meant that Danish subjects enjoyed all the rights granted to other foreigners in Hawaiʻi. The treaty was later ratified by the King of Denmark on November 29, 1847.  Ratification of the Treaty, The Polynesian, June 24, 1848, at 1 (available online at Chronicling America). The next day, on October 20, Captain Bille appointed Eduard Albert Lyverkrop, a Honolulu merchant, to serve as a Danish consul in Hawaiʻi.  An excerpt from this appointment letter is provided below.

Available in Chronological File, 1790 – 1849, 402-18, 1846 Oct 1-20.

Continue reading “ʻOkatoba 19: Kuʻikahi me Denemaka”

ʻOkatoba 16: Ka Make ʻAna o Bernice Pauahi Bishop

October 16, 1884: The Death of Bernice Pauahi Bishop

“Ke Ali’i Bernice Pauahi Pākī Bishop (1831-1884) — founder of Kamehameha Schools.” Photo credit: Kamehameha Schools.

Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, the great-granddaughter of Kamehameha I and the last recognized descendant of his royal line, passed away on October 16, 1884. See Avis Kuuipoleialoha Poai & Susan Serrano, Aliʻi Trusts: Native Hawaiian Charitable Trusts 1172 (Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie et al. eds., 2015). Devoted to the welfare of her people and cognizant of the rapid social changes occurring at the time, Pauahi considered education the means toward future advancement of Hawaiian children. Id. For this reason, she established a charitable trust for the educational benefit of Hawaiian children. The charitable trust established by Pauahi’s will is Kamehameha Schools. Id. Originally the trust corpus consisted primarily of the lands set aside by the Princess. Today, Hawai‘i real estate remains a core asset of the trust. Id.

Income to support the schools’ educational programs comes from the lease and sale of the real estate holdings and from financial investments. Id. Over the years, the market value of the endowment has grown from an estimated $474,000 in 1884 to more than $11.5 billion as of 2017. See Hōʻike Kū Makahiki o ke Kula Kamehameha 2017. Kamehameha Schools, Pauahi’s legacy to her people, has become one of the wealthiest and most influential private charitable trusts in the United States.

Below are excerpts from Pauahi’s probate file which are housed at the Hawaiʻi State Archives. Transcriptions follow.

Petition for Probate of Will for Bernice Pauahi Bishop (Oct. 16, 1884), in In re Estate of Bishop, Probate No. 2425 (Haw. Sup. Ct. 1884) (filed in Certificate of Proof of Will) (available for download here from the Hawaiʻi State Archives).

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ʻOkatoba 16: Kuʻikahi me Netelani

October 16, 1862: Treaty with Netherlands

A treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation was secured between “His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands” and “His Majesty the King of the Netherlands” at the Hague on October 16, 1862. The plenipotentiaries listed for the King of the Netherlands were Paul van der Maesen de Sombreff, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Gerardus Henri Betz, Minister of Finance. Sir John Bowring was the Hawaiʻi plenipotentiary. This treaty was ratified by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in Honolulu on October 3, 1863. See Treaties – Netherlands. Below are excerpts from the Hawaiian language version of this treaty. Transcripts for these excerpts are also provided.

Available in Treaties – Netherlands.

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ʻOkatoba 10: #ATALM2018

October 10, 2018: #ATALM2018
For Our People: Past, Present, and Future

Aloha kākou! I am writing from beautiful Prior Lake, Minnesota, the location of the 11th Annual International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Mni Sota (“The Land Where the Waters Reflect the Sky”) is known as the ancestral homeland to the Dakota and Ojibwe people. It is a privilege to hear their origin stories and learn about their history that dates back over 10,000 years.

On October 10, Ka Huli Ao’s digital archives program Punawaiola received the 2018 International Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums (ATALM) Guardians of Culture and Lifeways Award for Archives Excellence. ATALM’s international awards program “identifies and recognizes organizations who serve as outstanding examples of how indigenous archives, libraries and museums contribute to the vitality and sovereignty of Native Nations.” Ka Huli Ao is honored and humbled to receive this prestigious indigenous award.

The theme for this year’s ATALM conference is: “For Our People: Past, Present, and Future”—an apt description for much of what we strive to do at Ka Huli Ao. At ATALM’s conference, renowned attorney, author and scholar Walter Echo-Hawk summarized the calling for all guardians of heritage as follows: “As indigenous people, we alone are responsible for ensuring the future of our cultures. In this high calling, we are aided by indigenous institutions that pass our heritage from one generation to another. Let us resolve to do the best we can.” Wise words of encouragement indeed! E hoʻomau!



ʻOkatoba 12: “Hooheno no ka Loio Antone Rosa”

October 12, 1898: In Memoriam – Attorney Antone Rosa

Antone Rosa, 1888. Hawaii State Archives, Call Number: PP-96-13-08.

Antone Rosa, the celebrated Hawaiian lawyer, attorney general, judge, cabinet minister and politician passed away on October 12, 1898. He was memorably referenced as an “ʻahikananā” in Ka Buke Moʻolelo o Hon. Robert William Wilikoki. See Thomas K. Nakanela, Ka Buke Moolelo o Hon. Robert William Wilikoki (1890). In short, that term symbolically likened Rosa to a type of tuna–a fish known for its fierce fighting qualities.

Rosa was reportedly a brilliant and accomplished Hawaiian scholar. Death of Antone Rosa: Noted Hawaiian Lawyer Has Passed Away, Hawaiian Star, Sept. 9, 1898, at 1. Moreover, he had attained “a large and lucrative practice” and retained much of it “until overtaken by illness.” Id. Below is a resolution passed by the Hawaiʻi Bar on October 12, 1898. A short transcription follows.

Available in Judiciary Branch Records, Series 241: Records of the Clerks of the Supreme Court and First Circuit Court – Admin Records, 1898.

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ʻOkatoba 8: Lā Poʻe ʻŌiwi

October 8, 2018: Indigenous Peoples’ Day

Columbus Day is listed as one of 10 official federal holidays, but fewer than half of U.S. states give their workers Columbus Day as a paid holiday. See Drew Desliver, Working on Columbus Day? It Depends on Where You Live, Pew Research Center (Oct. 8, 2015). According to one news report, “Just this year, at least a dozen U.S. cities–including San Francisco and Cincinnati–decided to stop observing Columbus Day and will instead celebrate Indigenous Peoples’ Day.” Discoverers’ Day Is Not a State Holiday, KHON2 (Oct. 8, 2018).

Here in Hawaiʻi, Columbus Day has not been observed as a state holiday since 1988. In that year, Act 220 was passed which states: “The second Monday in October shall be known as Discoverers’ Day, in recognition of the Polynesian discoverers of the Hawaiian Islands . . . .” Haw. Rev. Stat. § 8.1-5. The relevant excerpt from Act 220 is below.

Available in Session Laws of Hawaii, Regular and Special Session, 1988.

Monday, October 8, 2018 is Discoverers’ Day in Hawaiʻi. We stand in solidarity with other indigenous peoples as we recognize Lā Poʻe ʻŌiwi.

ʻOkatoba 8: Kumukānāwai o ka Makahiki 1840

October 8, 1840: Constitution of 1840

The 1840 Constitution was Hawaiʻi’s first detailed constitution and it established a governmental structure for the Hawaiian Kingdom. It confirmed the authority of island governors who had been appointed by the king, and created a two-body legislative council with a house of nobles and a house of representatives chosen by the people. The 1840 Constitution also created a judicial system which included a supreme court. The supreme court was comprised of the king, the kuhina nui (prime minister or regent), and four others appointed by the house of representatives. The constitution was written by King Kauikeaouli and Premier Kekāuluohi. Enacted on October 8, 1840 and published as Ke Kumu Kanawai a me na Kanawai o ko Hawaii Pae Aina, Honolulu, 1841, and Translation of the Constitution and Laws of the Hawaiian Islands, Established in the Reign of Kamehameha III, Lahaina Luna, 1842.

Available in Constitutions – Ke Kumu Kanawai a me Ke Kanawai, 1841.

Below is the enacting language contained in the 1840 Constitution which states: “O keia olelo i oleloia maluna, ua hooholoia i naʻlii, a ua kauia ko maua inoa, i keia la 8 o Okatoba, i ka makahiki o ka Haku, 1840, ma Honolulu, Oahu.”

Available in Constitutions – Ke Kumu Kanawai a me Ke Kanawai, 1841.

ʻOkatoba 4: Kuʻikahi me Belgiuma

October 4, 1862: Treaty with Belgium

On October 4, 1862, a treaty between Hawaiʻi and Belgium was concluded in Brussels, with Sir John Bowring representing King Kamehameha IV, and Monsieur Charles Rogier representing King Leopold. Of significance was Article 26 which stated,

If from a concurrence of unfortunate circumstances difference between the contracting parties should cause an interruption of the relations of friendship between them, and that after having exhausted the means of an amicable and conciliatory discussion, the object of their mutual desire should not have been completely obtain, the arbitration of a third power, equally the friend of both, shall, by a common accord, be appealed to, in order to avoid by this means a definitive rupture.

The significance of this provision was explained in an article published in The Polynesian, “The value to this Kingdom of such a treaty provision cannot be overrated. Everyone must know that had treaties with such an equitable provision in them subsisted 38 years ago . . . the harsh transactions of Captain La Place in 1829–those of Lord George Paulet in 1843, and those of Admiral de Tromelin in 1849, would never have had place in Hawaiian history.” (Treaty with Belgium, The Polynesian (Mar. 21, 1863), available in Treaties Belgium 1862). In our past blog postings, we cover some of these aforementioned events involving Admiral de Tromelin (Part 1, Part 2), and Captain La Place.

Below is an excerpt from the Hawaiian translation of the 1862 treaty between the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and Belgium. A transcription follows.

Available in Treaties Belgium 1862.

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