November 30 – December 3, 1829:
Regarding Boki’s Expedition (Part 2)
As described in the previous post, Boki decided to embark on a sandalwood expedition to settle the chiefs’ debts. Preparations for two ships, the Kamehameha and the Keokoʻi (also known as Karemoku or Kalaimoku) commenced. The directions to the commander of the Keokoʻi were set forth in a letter signed by Boki and Kauikeaouli. It directed the ship to go to “certain islands” and “prevail on the inhabitants to Except[sic] of our protection by them taking the oath of alegiance[sic] and allowing our colours to be hoisted and for them to concider[sic] themselves under our protection . . . .” In short, this letter indicates that this was not a mere expedition—but rather a voyage of conquest.
November 30 – December 3, 1829:
Regarding Boki’s Expedition (Part 1)
Boki (Kamāʻuleʻule) was a noted chief during the reigns of both King Kamehameha I and Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha II). As explained by Dr. Puakea Nogelmeier, from 1825 to 1829, Boki was known as a formidable political and economic figure of singular importance in the Hawaiian Islands. M. Puakea Nogelmeier, Boki: The Challenges of a Ruling Chief 1 (n.d.) (unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa) (on file at Mānoa’s ScholarSpace). Boki acted as a “counterpoint to the rapidly growing influence of American missionaries in Hawaiian government and society. His cultural conservatism, his ties to the British and his involvement in trade placed him in conflict with his fellow chiefs’ growing acceptance of puritan Christianity.” Id. Continue reading “Nov. 30 – Dek. 3: No ka Holo ʻana o Boki (Mahele 1)”
King Alexander Liholiho died at the early age of 29 on November 30, 1863. He reigned as the fourth king of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from January 11, 1855 to November 30, 1863. His father was Mataio Kekūanāoʻa, Royal Governor of Oʻahu and his mother was Elizabeth Kīnaʻu the Kuhina Nui or Prime Minister of the Kingdom. He was also the grandson of Kamehameha I. While he still quite young, Liholiho was adopted by King Kauikeaouli, the third ruling monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom.
Unfortunately, Kamehameha IV died without a will. Thus, the legal status of the King’s lands were not judicially determined until 1864. His widow, Queen Emma claimed “her intestate share of one-half of the King’s Lands and rights of dower in the remaining half.” SeeMelody Kapilialoha MacKenzie, Historical Background, in Native Hawaiian Law: A Treatise 18 (Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie et al. eds., 2015). The Hawaiʻi Supreme Court determined that the King’s land should descend to the successors of the throne–not the heirs of the king. Estate of Kamehameha IV, 2 Haw. 715 (1864).
November 28, 2018: Independence Day (Hawaiʻi State Archives)
The Department of Accounting and General Services posted the following important announcement regarding Lā Kūʻokoa:
On November 28, 2018, the Hawaiʻi State Archives, a division of the Department of Accounting and General Services, in lieu of normal business hours, will be open to the public from 1:00-3:00pm at the Kekāuluohi Building on the ʻIolani Palace Grounds. As part of the “Year of the Hawaiian”, this exhibition of original documents and artifacts is themed Celebrating the diplomatic history of the Hawaiian Kingdom in recognition of the 175th Anniversary of the signing of the Anglo-French Declaration on November 28, 1843. This declaration acknowledged the Hawaiian Kingdom as a diplomatic equal to the world powers of the time with a “government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations.” With this recognition foreign relations blossomed, international treaties were signed, and over 110 Hawaiian Kingdom consulates were opened around the world.
Highlights of the original records and artifacts that will be on display include:
The Journal of Diplomatic Mission to Europe, 1842-44, that resulted in the Anglo-French Declaration of 1843
Hawaiʻi’s copy of the Anglo-French Declaration
Proclamation of Neutrality, 1854 by the Hawaiian Kingdom regarding the ongoing Crimean War that laid the foundation for the development of international laws on state neutrality
Original documents showcasing how the event, Lā Kūʻokoʻa, was celebrated throughout various years
International Treaties signed with Great Britain, Japan and Italy
Original Diplomatic Seals from the Hawaiian Kingdom consulates aboard
Correspondence between the Hawaiian Ministers’ of Foreign Affairs and the Hawaiian Kingdom consulates
Schedule of events:
Lecture on Timoteo Haʻalilio in Kanaʻina Building, one of three Hawaiian Kingdom delegates who negotiated with European powers to achieve this historic recognition.
During the kingdom era, Lā Kūʻokoʻa, or Independence Day, was a former national holiday celebrated on November 28 to commemorate the signing of the Anglo-Franco Proclamation. This document recognized the independence and sovereignty of the Hawaiian nation by Great Britain and France. Two major historical events led to this proclamation.
As explained in a previous blog posting, in 1839, Captain Laplace arrived in Hawaiʻi under orders to put an end to the persecution of Catholics in the Hawaiian Kingdom. This event, known as the Laplace Affair, resulted in Kauikeaouli being forced to issue the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839. The kingdom paid $20,000 as compensation and as a guarantee of their “future conduct towards France.”
Kauikeaouli, anticipating future diplomatic issues with foreign nations, dispatched a delegation to the United States and Europe to secure recognition of Hawaiʻi’s sovereign independence. Unfortunately, while the delegation was away, Lord George Paulet, captain of HMS Carysfort arrived in Hawaiʻi, and acting without authority, unilaterally seized the kingdom. On July 31, 1843, Rear Admiral Richard Thomas of the British Navy ended five months of occupation in Hawaiʻi. The national celebration of Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea, or Sovereignty Restoration Day, was established to commemorate this momentous occasion. See previous blog postings: Iulai 31: “Mele Hoihouana,”Iulai 31: “Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea,”Iulai 31: “He Olelo Lokomaikai,”Iulai 29: “Leka a Peirce a me Brewer iā Kauikeaouli.”
A few months later, the British and French governments formally recognized the Hawaiian Kingdom’s independence in a joint declaration signed by Lord Aberdeen and the Comte de Saint-Aulare, representatives of Queen Victoria and King Louis-Phillippe. A transcription of the English declaration is provided below.
November 26, 1838: Proclamation Regarding the Impecunious
Below is a proclamation issued by Kauikeaouli on November 26, 1838 providing direction for Native Hawaiians who lacked money. The tasks assigned to men, women, girls and boys are different. For example, men are directed to cut stone, make lime, cut wood, and labor in the cane field. In contrast, women are directed to braid mats and hats, sew hats and kapa. Girls were expected to work with women, and boys with men. Below is a transcription of the proclamation.
November 21, 1829: Letter from Captain Finch to Kauikeaouli
Captain W. B. Finch of the USS Vincennes departed for the Pacific on September 3, 1826. Thomas Truxtun Moebs, America’s Naval Heritage: A Catalog of Early Imprints from the Navy Department Library 104 (2000). It returned on June 8, 1830, successfully completing the first circumnavigation of the globe by a U.S. warship. Id.
Upon Finch’s arrival to Hawaiʻi, he paid a diplomatic visit to King Kauikeaouli. He presented gifts to the king and communicated a letter written in English and Hawaiian. See Foreign Office & Executive – Chronological File, 1790 – 1849 1829 Nov 21. In that letter, Finch made a number of suggestions to the king, including to consider promulgating laws in consultation with all of the foreign residents with whom he had confidence. He further suggested that Kauikeaouli conduct a semi-annual or annual meeting of the great chiefs, to attend to state affairs. Id. The letter also stresses the importance of learning the English language. A side-by-side presentation of this portion of the letter is provided below.
O kahi o kou aina ma ka honua, he wahi maikai no ia, aole ike pono ia ka pono nui o ia wahi ma ia hope aku, i keia makahiki aku, a i kela makahiki aku mahuahua ka maopopo ia oe ka pono o kou wahi, no laila ke olelo hou aku nei au ia oe e ao oe i ka olelo English, malaila weheia ke kula nui loa o ka ike, a i ko hana pono ana me ia naauao, e hookumu oe i inoa kaulana, aole e make i ka wa e pau ai ko Hawaii nei pae aina.
The geographical position of your inheritance is so peculiarly favorable that no one can foresee the degree of importance it is to attain; every year its additional consequence will be apparent to you; therefore I again repeat, acquire the English language, which will open an unlimited field of knowledge to you; in the right use of which, you may found a name more imperishable and enduring than the Islands of Hawaii.
November 18, 1917: The Funeral of Queen Liliʻuokalani
Queen Liliʻuokalani, the Hawaiian Kingdom’s last reigning monarch, passed away on November 11, 1917 and her state funeral was held a week later on November 18. See Waiho o Liliuokalani i ka Moe Mau Loa, Nupepa Kuokoa, (Nov. 23, 1917) (available online). The legal disputes that followed were not resolved until 1923—nearly six years after Lili‘uokalani’s death. See Avis Kuuipoleialoha Poai & Susan Serrano, Aliʻi Trusts: Native Hawaiian Charitable Trusts 1197 (Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie et al. eds., 2015) (providing legal history for contentious circumstances surrounding the creation of Liliʻuokalani’s estate).
Fulfilling the traditional role of the Hawaiian aliʻi, Liliʻuokalani designed a trust with the well-being of her people in mind. It was her way to continue to serve her people in perpetuity. The trust that she established was for the benefit of orphans and other destitute Hawaiian children. Id. at 1196. Section VII of the Queen’s Deed of Trust, dated December 2, 1909, states in pertinent part:
From and after the death of the Grantor, all of the property of the trust estate, both principal and income, which shall not be required for any of the special provisions or payments in this instrument before mentioned, shall be used by the Trustees for the benefit of orphan children in the Hawaiian Islands, the preference to be given to Hawaiian children of pure or part aboriginal blood.
(See Deed of Trust of Liliuokalani (Dec. 2, 1909), microformed on Liber 319, 447–59 (Hawai‘i Bureau of Conveyances). Sadly, numerous lawsuits were filed challenging this trust. Famously, her own nephew Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole sought to dissolve the deed of trust alleging that the queen had been unduly influenced and manipulated. Id. at 1199. Even after Prince Kūhiō’s protracted lawsuit was settled, others filed complaints, including a person claiming to be Liliʻuokalani’s heir. See In re Estate of Liliuokalani, 25 Haw. 127, 128-29 (1919) (dismissing a claim of inheritance brought by Theresa Owana Wilcox Belliveau on the grounds that she could not establish her genealogical relationship to the queen).
The will was finally admitted to probate in 1923. Id. at 1200. Today, the primary focus of the Queen Lili‘uokalani Trust is to assist orphans, children who have lost one or both parents to death, and destitute children, defined as any child in financial, educational, or cultural need. Id. The Queen Lili‘uokalani Children’s Center (QLCC) is the culmination of the trustees’ efforts to establish an institution for the benefit of these Native Hawaiian children.
As described in a previous blog posting, Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. The Hawaiian and English versions of this controversial treaty were provided in previous blog postings (Māhele 1 and Māhele 2). In the record provided below, it lists the names of those who witnessed the treaty between the Hawaiian and British governments. A transcription follows.
As described in a previous blog posting, Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. Below is the Hawaiian text of this controversial treaty (available in Foreign Office & Executive: Chronological File, 1790 – 1849 1836 Nov n.d. 7, 16). In the previous post, the English language version of this treaty is provided.