As described in the previous blog posting, Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. Below is the English text of this controversial treaty (available in Foreign Office & Executive: Chronological File, 1790 – 1849 1836 Nov n.d. 7, 16). In the following post, the Hawaiian language version of this treaty is provided.
On November 16, 1836, King Kauikeaouli wrote a letter agreeing to restore the premises of George Chapman. A copy of this letter and its transcription may be found below. The surprising history behind this short letter is tied to a controversial historical figure, Richard Charlton. See Richard MacAllan, Richard Charlton: A Reassessment, 30 Haw. J. Hist. 53 (1996) (available online).
In early January 1836, Chapman and Lawlor, two British merchants, were detained at the Honolulu fort and their property was seized over a disputed debt. According to Charlton’s account dated January 7, 1836, Chapman “was forcibly taken from his house . . . by a party of natives and taken to the fort–that his house was locked up by a person named Paki.” Furthermore, upon Chapman’s return to his home, “he found that several articles belonging to himself and others residing in his house had been stolen.” Charlton concludes his letter by requesting support, “As the representative of His Britannic Majesty at these islands, I have to request that your majesty will immediately have the offenders brought to justice, and punished for their unjustifiable conduct.” See FO&Ex 402-3, 1836 Jan -Mar. The foreign secretary, Lord Palmerston, responded to Charlton’s request to send a ship to investigate the detention of Chapman by Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon. MacAllan, 30 Haw. J. Hist. 57. Instead of focusing on the release of Chapman and Lawlor, Russell instead secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. Id. A separate blog entry covers the Russell treaty.
As described in a letter dated November 16, 1836, Kauikeaouli agrees to restore the premises of Chapman in the same or not inferior state in which it was taken possession of. A transcription of this letter may be found below.
Today, we honor and remember those who bravely served and gave the ultimate sacrifice in defense of the liberties we enjoy today. 2018 marks the Centennial Commemoration of the end of World War I on November 11, 1918. This year’s Veterans Day poster, thematically entitled, “The War to End All Wars,” depicts the remembrance poppy and a barbed wire fence. To learn more about this poster, please see: https://militarybenefits.info/veterans-day-posters-2010-2019/#ixzz5WfnPAHrU.
Here in Hawaiʻi, an estimated “9,800 residents served in World War I, including almost 200 who joined the British armed forces, many prior to the U.S. entry into the war.” Robert C. Schmitt, Hawaiʻi’s War Veterans and BattleDeaths, 32 Haw. J. Hist. 171, 172 (1998) (available online). A total of 102 residents died. Id. The Waikīkī Natatorium War Memorial was designed to honor those who served and gave their lives during World War I.
Native Hawaiian leaders supported the war effort as described in the newspaper articles shown below. See No True Hawaiian Would Evade It, Honolulu Star-Bull., Sept. 28, 1917, at 7-9. A two page advertisement encouraging Red Cross donations was signed by Queen Liliʻuokalani and U.S. Congressional Representative Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole. A full-page advertisement showcasing a personal “thank you” from President Wilson to Liliʻuokalani ran on the previous page. A transcription is provided below.
John Young was an important military advisor to King Kamehameha I. Young originally served as boatswain on the Eleanora, an American ship that anchored in Kealakekua Bay in February 1790. Ka Mooolelo Hawaii (photo. reprint 2005) (Honolulu, 1838) (available online). Young was sent ashore by his captain to investigate the disappearance of The Fair American. Young was detained by Kamehameha as he did not want Young to discover the fate of this ship. The Eleanora, after waiting for two days, departed leaving Young behind.
This fascinating story was captured in Ka Mooolelo Hawaii, the ﬁrst history of the islands published in the Hawaiian language. It represents the ﬁrst concerted effort to document Hawaiian oral traditions and accounts written by Native Hawaiians. Ka Mooolelo Hawaii contains a native account of Vancouver’s visit to the Hawaiian Islands while traveling to the northwest coast of America. In that account, it details Vancouver’s suggested counsel to King Kamehameha regarding John Young (Olohana) and Isaac Davis (Aikake):
A i hou mai la o Vanekouva ia Kamehameha, Mai hoonoho oe i ka haole i Hawaii nei, i elua wale no haole e noho ma Hawaii nei, Olohana ma laua o Aikake, aka, o ka nui o ka haole, he mea opuinoino loa, he kanaka huhu wale, he poe hoomakaulii aina, aole loa e pono ka haole ke noho mai ma ko oukou pae aina, o hihia oukou.
An approximate translation of this passage reads as follows:
Vancouver also stated to Kamehameha, ʻDo not permit foreigners to settle in Hawaiʻi. Only two should settle in Hawaiʻi: Olohana and Aikake. This is because the majority of foreigners are men of bad character, angry for no reason, and greedy for land–it is not at all advisable for foreigners to dwell in your archipelago, lest you become entangled.’
This week for our blog, we feature an excerpt from John Young’s journal. As indicated on the back inside cover, the journal was presented to him by Charles Francis Barton on February 29, 1804. The writing is difficult to discern at times, and there are odd spellings of certain words (e.g.”Lord” is spelled “loard”). The November entry appears to say: “Novembr the 7 1808. From Yoapoocka 40 tapas for Oliver Holms 5 hogs Sept 1 Dog on the pleace.”
Young’s journal is difficult to read, but provides rare insight to early trade and foreign relations here in Hawaiʻi. We hope you enjoy reading this small excerpt!
November 5, 1833: Law for Regulating Trade in Lahaina
The following law, promulgated by Princess Harieta Keōpūolani Nāhiʻenaʻena, relates to the regulation of trade in the port of Lahaina. Princess Nāhiʻenaʻena, the only daughter of King Kamehameha I and Keōpūolani, tragically died at the age of twenty-one in 1836. See Marjorie Sinclair, Nahienaena, Hawaiian Princess, 3 Haw. J. Hist. 3, 3 (1969) (available online).
This law contains various provisions relating to the proper regulation of business dealings at the market. The inclusion of particular provision stands out because it strictly prohibits women from going to the market, to spectate or stand idly by (“Eia kekahi, ke papa aku nei au i na wahine, aole loa lakou e hele ma ka pa kuai, e makaikai aku ai, a e ku wale aku, ua oki lakou i ka hele malaila.”).
November 2, 1827: Letter from Jeremiah Evarts to Kauikeaouli
In a letter dated November 2, 1827, Jeremiah Evarts, early leader and corresponding secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), wrote to King Kauikeaouli. Evarts was a prominent lawyer, journalist, and social reformer. See Charles A. Maxfield, The Legacy of Jeremiah Evarts, 22 Int’l Bulletin of Missionary Research Oct. 1998, at 172 (available online). During the 1820s, he strenuously advocated against the removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to the territory west of the Mississippi River. Id.
Evarts letter to expresses a sincere appreciation of Kauikeaouli’s desire to learn. It goes on to explain that more teachers will be sent to hasten the work of “enlightening” the people of Hawaiʻi. The letter informs Kauikeaouli that a book containing maps, “the best that was ever made in America” would also be sent. Excerpts from this letter are below, followed by transcripts.
This letter dated October 30, 1837 is part of the correspondence documenting the international controversy surrounding the expulsion of two Catholic priests in Hawaiʻi. See Blog Posting: ʻOkatoba 23: “He mea Hoike i ka Kapena Beleker hana ana.” In this letter, Jules Dudoit writes to Kīnaʻu, Kuhina Nui of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, to confirm the veracity of certain reports that Dudoit had heard–specifically, whether it was true that King Kauikeaouli gave Kīnaʻu written directions to withhold permission for those priests to land in Hawaiʻi.
A treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation was secured between “His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands” and “Her Majesty the Queen of Spain” in London on October 29, 1863. The plenipotentiary listed for the Queen of Spain was Don Juan Tomas Comyn. Sir John Bowring was listed as the Hawaiʻi plenipotentiary. Ratification of this treaty was not completed until 1870 due to a number of unforeseen events, including Queen Isabella’s deposition in 1868. Moreover, just one month after this treaty was concluded, King Liholiho passed away on November 30, 1863. Charles Harris, the Minister for Foreign Affairs announced on September 2, 1870, “And whereas, the said Treaty has been now duly ratified by His Majesty the King, and His Highness the Regent of Spain, and ratifications exchanged, the said Treaty has become a part of the law of this Kingdom, and all the provisions thereof are to be observed.” Treaty with Spain, Haw. Gazette (Sept. 7, 1870) (available online).
Below are excerpts from the Hawaiian language version of this treaty. Transcripts for these excerpts are also provided.
This treaty contained twenty-seven articles and took twenty-two lengthy conferences to resolve. See alsoTreaty, The Polynesian at 1 (Sept. 11, 1858) (available online). Below are excerpts from the treaty (with the original seals). Transcripts follow.
October 24, 1827: Letter from Hoapilikāne to Kaʻahumanu
On October 24, 1827, Hoapilikāne (also known as Ulumeheiheihoapilikāne), Governor of Maui, wrote a letter to Elisapeka Kaʻahumanu, the Regent of the Hawaiian Kingdom. In this letter, he writes about a violent incident involving Captain Clark and the crew of the English whale ship the John Palmer. While the ship was in Lahaina, several women (Nakoko and Mikapako) secretly boarded the ship. When this was discovered, Hoapili asked the Captain to return the women. Clark refused. The next day, Hoapili repeatedly asked the Captain to return the women. Clark again refused, ridiculing and sneering at Hoapili’s demands. At this point, Hoapili detained the Captain. The crew, in the meantime, commenced firing cannon balls in the general direction of the mission house–the home of the missionary William Richards. Later, Richards attempted to mediate this dispute. In the end, the Captain was released and in exchange he promised to release the women. The women were not released, however, and the John Palmer sailed off for Honolulu.