As described in the previous blog posting, Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. Below is the English text of this controversial treaty (available in Foreign Office & Executive: Chronological File, 1790 – 1849 1836 Nov n.d. 7, 16). In the following post, the Hawaiian language version of this treaty is provided.
On November 16, 1836, King Kauikeaouli wrote a letter agreeing to restore the premises of George Chapman. A copy of this letter and its transcription may be found below. The surprising history behind this short letter is tied to a controversial historical figure, Richard Charlton. See Richard MacAllan, Richard Charlton: A Reassessment, 30 Haw. J. Hist. 53 (1996) (available online).
In early January 1836, Chapman and Lawlor, two British merchants, were detained at the Honolulu fort and their property was seized over a disputed debt. According to Charlton’s account dated January 7, 1836, Chapman “was forcibly taken from his house . . . by a party of natives and taken to the fort–that his house was locked up by a person named Paki.” Furthermore, upon Chapman’s return to his home, “he found that several articles belonging to himself and others residing in his house had been stolen.” Charlton concludes his letter by requesting support, “As the representative of His Britannic Majesty at these islands, I have to request that your majesty will immediately have the offenders brought to justice, and punished for their unjustifiable conduct.” See FO&Ex 402-3, 1836 Jan -Mar. The foreign secretary, Lord Palmerston, responded to Charlton’s request to send a ship to investigate the detention of Chapman by Commander Edward Russell of the H.M.S. Actaeon. MacAllan, 30 Haw. J. Hist. 57. Instead of focusing on the release of Chapman and Lawlor, Russell instead secured an agreement at gunpoint which permitted British residents to settle on land obtained with the king’s consent. Id. A separate blog entry covers the Russell treaty.
As described in a letter dated November 16, 1836, Kauikeaouli agrees to restore the premises of Chapman in the same or not inferior state in which it was taken possession of. A transcription of this letter may be found below.
John Young was an important military advisor to King Kamehameha I. Young originally served as boatswain on the Eleanora, an American ship that anchored in Kealakekua Bay in February 1790. Ka Mooolelo Hawaii (photo. reprint 2005) (Honolulu, 1838) (available online). Young was sent ashore by his captain to investigate the disappearance of The Fair American. Young was detained by Kamehameha as he did not want Young to discover the fate of this ship. The Eleanora, after waiting for two days, departed leaving Young behind.
This fascinating story was captured in Ka Mooolelo Hawaii, the ﬁrst history of the islands published in the Hawaiian language. It represents the ﬁrst concerted effort to document Hawaiian oral traditions and accounts written by Native Hawaiians. Ka Mooolelo Hawaii contains a native account of Vancouver’s visit to the Hawaiian Islands while traveling to the northwest coast of America. In that account, it details Vancouver’s suggested counsel to King Kamehameha regarding John Young (Olohana) and Isaac Davis (Aikake):
A i hou mai la o Vanekouva ia Kamehameha, Mai hoonoho oe i ka haole i Hawaii nei, i elua wale no haole e noho ma Hawaii nei, Olohana ma laua o Aikake, aka, o ka nui o ka haole, he mea opuinoino loa, he kanaka huhu wale, he poe hoomakaulii aina, aole loa e pono ka haole ke noho mai ma ko oukou pae aina, o hihia oukou.
An approximate translation of this passage reads as follows:
Vancouver also stated to Kamehameha, ʻDo not permit foreigners to settle in Hawaiʻi. Only two should settle in Hawaiʻi: Olohana and Aikake. This is because the majority of foreigners are men of bad character, angry for no reason, and greedy for land–it is not at all advisable for foreigners to dwell in your archipelago, lest you become entangled.’
This week for our blog, we feature an excerpt from John Young’s journal. As indicated on the back inside cover, the journal was presented to him by Charles Francis Barton on February 29, 1804. The writing is difficult to discern at times, and there are odd spellings of certain words (e.g.”Lord” is spelled “loard”). The November entry appears to say: “Novembr the 7 1808. From Yoapoocka 40 tapas for Oliver Holms 5 hogs Sept 1 Dog on the pleace.”
Young’s journal is difficult to read, but provides rare insight to early trade and foreign relations here in Hawaiʻi. We hope you enjoy reading this small excerpt!
November 2, 1827: Letter from Jeremiah Evarts to Kauikeaouli
In a letter dated November 2, 1827, Jeremiah Evarts, early leader and corresponding secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), wrote to King Kauikeaouli. Evarts was a prominent lawyer, journalist, and social reformer. See Charles A. Maxfield, The Legacy of Jeremiah Evarts, 22 Int’l Bulletin of Missionary Research Oct. 1998, at 172 (available online). During the 1820s, he strenuously advocated against the removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to the territory west of the Mississippi River. Id.
Evarts letter to expresses a sincere appreciation of Kauikeaouli’s desire to learn. It goes on to explain that more teachers will be sent to hasten the work of “enlightening” the people of Hawaiʻi. The letter informs Kauikeaouli that a book containing maps, “the best that was ever made in America” would also be sent. Excerpts from this letter are below, followed by transcripts.
This letter dated October 30, 1837 is part of the correspondence documenting the international controversy surrounding the expulsion of two Catholic priests in Hawaiʻi. See Blog Posting: ʻOkatoba 23: “He mea Hoike i ka Kapena Beleker hana ana.” In this letter, Jules Dudoit writes to Kīnaʻu, Kuhina Nui of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, to confirm the veracity of certain reports that Dudoit had heard–specifically, whether it was true that King Kauikeaouli gave Kīnaʻu written directions to withhold permission for those priests to land in Hawaiʻi.
October 24, 1827: Letter from Hoapilikāne to Kaʻahumanu
On October 24, 1827, Hoapilikāne (also known as Ulumeheiheihoapilikāne), Governor of Maui, wrote a letter to Elisapeka Kaʻahumanu, the Regent of the Hawaiian Kingdom. In this letter, he writes about a violent incident involving Captain Clark and the crew of the English whale ship the John Palmer. While the ship was in Lahaina, several women (Nakoko and Mikapako) secretly boarded the ship. When this was discovered, Hoapili asked the Captain to return the women. Clark refused. The next day, Hoapili repeatedly asked the Captain to return the women. Clark again refused, ridiculing and sneering at Hoapili’s demands. At this point, Hoapili detained the Captain. The crew, in the meantime, commenced firing cannon balls in the general direction of the mission house–the home of the missionary William Richards. Later, Richards attempted to mediate this dispute. In the end, the Captain was released and in exchange he promised to release the women. The women were not released, however, and the John Palmer sailed off for Honolulu.
October 23, 1837: Account of Captain Belcher’s Proceedings
The somewhat convoluted history surrounding the events leading up to and resulting in the expulsion of two Catholic priests in 1837 is fascinating. This blog posting provides a very cursory look at this incident in order to draw attention to an account, written in ʻōlelo, that summarizes some of the discussions between aliʻi and foreign representatives. Some context is necessary, however, in order to better understand this account, which was written on October 23, 1837.
On July 8, 1837, Captain Abel Du Petit-Thouars of the frigate La Venus (a heavily-armed ship loaded with 58 cannons and 470 men) arrived in Honolulu. See Colin Dyer, Polynesians in the Cross-Fire: The Hawaiians Caught Between French Captain Abel Du Petit-Thouars and American Missionary Hiram Bingham, Honolulu, 1837, 122 J. Polynesian Socʻy 69, 71 (2013). Captain Du Petit-Thouars was shocked to learn of the treatment of two Catholic priests, Alexis Bachelot and Patrick Short, who had been held for months on the Clémentine, a British registered ship owned by Jules Dudoit. King Kauikeaouli had sought to deport the priests by placing them on Dudoit’s ship. Dudoit, however, refused and all attempts at negotiation apparently failed. Continue reading “ʻOkatoba 23: “He mea Hoike i ka Kapena Beleker hana ana””
October 23, 1832: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions – Letter to Kauikeaouli
In a letter dated October 23, 1832, Rufus Anderson and David Greene, corresponding secretaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM), wrote to King Kauikeaouli. The letter explains that Reverend Benjamin Parker, Reverend Lowell Smith, and Lemuel Fuller (a printer) would be arriving on the Mentor, led by Captain Rice.
This aforementioned group was a part of the sixth ABCFM company, which sailed from New London on November 21, 1832, and arrived in Honolulu on May 1, 1833. See Hawaiian Mission Children’s Society,Portraits of American Protestant Missionaries to Hawaii 44 (1901) (available online). The voyage took 161 days. Id.
Excerpts from this letter are below, followed by transcripts.
In our previous blog posting, we examined a petition submitted by residents of Kalaupapa and Kalawao requesting to retain David Kalauokalani as their district judge. That particular petition, which was buried in the Numbered Files of the Foreign Office and Executive department, was found in close proximity (i.e., the next folder) to a report that had been issued to the Chairman of the Executive and Advisory Councils of the Republic of Hawaiʻi. This report provides some insight as to how pro-annexationists sought to examine the loyalty of government employees–an issue that Kalauokalani probably encountered given his ardent support of sovereign independence.
A copy of this report, followed by a brief transcription, may be found below.
In Punawaiola’s previous blog entry, we discussed Kalauokalani’s long-time service as the leader of the Home Rule party. But prior to this, he served as a district magistrate for Molokaʻi. According to the Biennial Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court covering the years from 1892 to 1893, Kalauokalani’s term as district magistrate for Molokaʻi was set to expire on June 2, 1894. After the illegal overthrow in 1893, however, a law was immediately passed requiring all persons holding office or working for the government to swear an oath of allegiance: