A treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation between the Hawaiian Kingdom and the United States was concluded and signed by their Plenipotentiaries on December 20, 1849. The treaty was ratified on August 19, 1850, by his majesty Kauikeaouli, the Premier, Keoni Ana, and the Minister of Foreign Relations, R.C. Wyllie. Below is a snippet from the Hawaiian language version of the ratification:
King Kalākaua along with his plenipotentiaries Elisha H. Allen and Henry A. P. Carter, visited Washington and successfully concluded negotiations to enter into a Convention with the United States on January 30, 1875. In sum, it established close economic and political relations between the two nations, “allowing certain products, including sugar, to be imported into the United States without a tariff and prohibiting the kingdom from allowing another nation similar privileges or any lease to Hawaiian harbors and ports.” See Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie, Historical Background, in Native Hawaiian Law: A Treatise at n. 152 (Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie et al. eds., 2015).
The convention was set to take effect once duly ratified by both governments, and after it obtained Congressional approval. See Convention Between the United States and His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, 19 Stat. 625 (1875) (image below).
The enabling act for the treaty went into effect, and was signed by President Grant on August 15, 1876 (image below). Thus, it took a full year for the Reciprocity Treaty to go into effect.
On July 22, 1863, the King of Italy and the King of Hawaiʻi entered into a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation. Below are the signatures and seals of the Plenipotentiaries for Hawaiʻi and Italy. An English transcription follows.
On July 20, 1864, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi entered into a treaty of friendship and commerce with the Swiss Confederation. Below are two pages from the treaty. A transcription for the French column is provided below by Brittanie Nery:
et de commerce
Sa majesté le Roi Hawaiien
la Confédération Suisse.
Sa majesté le Roi Hawaiien
la Confédération Suisse
En foi de quoi
les plénipotentiaires respectifs
ont signé le Traité et y ont
apposé leurs sceaux
Ainsi fais par duplicata
à Berne le vingtième jour
de juillet mille huit cent
Le Plénipotentiaire Hawaiien:
/s/ JOHN BOWRING
Le Plénipotentiaire Suisse:
/s/ Col. F. FREY FLEROSEE
In July of 1839, Captain Laplace of the French frigate L’Artémise, arrived in the islands under orders to put an end to the persecution of Catholics in the Hawaiian Kingdom. King Kauikeaouli issued the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839, and paid $20,000 as a guarantee of “his future conduct towards France.” Additionally, the treaty ensured the release of all imprisoned Catholics, and established the creation of a site for a Catholic Church. The church was required to be located in a port frequented by the French, and ministered by a French priest.
Below are excerpts from the 1839 treaty between the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and France. A transcription of the Hawaiian language follows.
June 3, 1850: Regarding Treaties with Foreign Nations
On June 3, 1850, the Privy Council considered a number of issues related to foreign relations. Of some interest is the determination that if the French and English refused to make a new treaty similar to that made with the United States, notice would be given that the existing treaty would cease in one year.