Today, we honor and remember those who bravely served and gave the ultimate sacrifice in defense of the liberties we enjoy today. 2018 marks the Centennial Commemoration of the end of World War I on November 11, 1918. This year’s Veterans Day poster, thematically entitled, “The War to End All Wars,” depicts the remembrance poppy and a barbed wire fence. To learn more about this poster, please see: https://militarybenefits.info/veterans-day-posters-2010-2019/#ixzz5WfnPAHrU.
Here in Hawaiʻi, an estimated “9,800 residents served in World War I, including almost 200 who joined the British armed forces, many prior to the U.S. entry into the war.” Robert C. Schmitt, Hawaiʻi’s War Veterans and BattleDeaths, 32 Haw. J. Hist. 171, 172 (1998) (available online). A total of 102 residents died. Id. The Waikīkī Natatorium War Memorial was designed to honor those who served and gave their lives during World War I.
Native Hawaiian leaders supported the war effort as described in the newspaper articles shown below. See No True Hawaiian Would Evade It, Honolulu Star-Bull., Sept. 28, 1917, at 7-9. A two page advertisement encouraging Red Cross donations was signed by Queen Liliʻuokalani and U.S. Congressional Representative Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole. A full-page advertisement showcasing a personal “thank you” from President Wilson to Liliʻuokalani ran on the previous page. A transcription is provided below.
Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox, famously known as the Liona Hae o ka Pakipika (The Pacific’s Roaring Lion) and the “Iron Duke of Hawaiʻi,” was the son of an American father from New England and a mother descended from Maui royalty. He was educated at the Turin Military Academy in Italy under King Kalākaua’s Study Abroad program. See Agnes Quigg, Kalākaua’s Hawaiian Studies Abroad Program, 22 Haw. J. Hist. 170, 173 (1988) (http://hdl.handle.net/10524/103). He famously led uprisings in 1889 and 1895. SeeKa Buke Moolelo o Robert William Wilikoki (Thos. K. Nakanela ed., 1890); Ka Hoʻokahuli Aupuni Kaulana o 1893: Kaua Kūloko ma Honolulu, Ianuari 7, 1895 (Papapai Mahu Press Pub. Co., 1895). Later, Wilcox was elected as the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaiʻi. Continue reading “ʻOkatoba 23: Ka Make ʻAna o R.W. Wilikoki”
October 10, 2018: #ATALM2018
For Our People: Past, Present, and Future
Aloha kākou! I am writing from beautiful Prior Lake, Minnesota, the location of the 11th Annual International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Mni Sota (“The Land Where the Waters Reflect the Sky”) is known as the ancestral homeland to the Dakota and Ojibwe people. It is a privilege to hear their origin stories and learn about their history that dates back over 10,000 years.
On October 10, Ka Huli Ao’s digital archives program Punawaiola received the 2018 International Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums (ATALM) Guardians of Culture and Lifeways Award for Archives Excellence. ATALM’s international awards program “identifies and recognizes organizations who serve as outstanding examples of how indigenous archives, libraries and museums contribute to the vitality and sovereignty of Native Nations.” Ka Huli Ao is honored and humbled to receive this prestigious indigenous award.
The theme for this year’s ATALM conference is: “For Our People: Past, Present, and Future”—an apt description for much of what we strive to do at Ka Huli Ao. At ATALM’s conference, renowned attorney, author and scholar Walter Echo-Hawk summarized the calling for all guardians of heritage as follows: “As indigenous people, we alone are responsible for ensuring the future of our cultures. In this high calling, we are aided by indigenous institutions that pass our heritage from one generation to another. Let us resolve to do the best we can.” Wise words of encouragement indeed! E hoʻomau!
In our previous blog posting, we examined a petition submitted by residents of Kalaupapa and Kalawao requesting to retain David Kalauokalani as their district judge. That particular petition, which was buried in the Numbered Files of the Foreign Office and Executive department, was found in close proximity (i.e., the next folder) to a report that had been issued to the Chairman of the Executive and Advisory Councils of the Republic of Hawaiʻi. This report provides some insight as to how pro-annexationists sought to examine the loyalty of government employees–an issue that Kalauokalani probably encountered given his ardent support of sovereign independence.
A copy of this report, followed by a brief transcription, may be found below.
In Punawaiola’s previous blog entry, we discussed Kalauokalani’s long-time service as the leader of the Home Rule party. But prior to this, he served as a district magistrate for Molokaʻi. According to the Biennial Report of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court covering the years from 1892 to 1893, Kalauokalani’s term as district magistrate for Molokaʻi was set to expire on June 2, 1894. After the illegal overthrow in 1893, however, a law was immediately passed requiring all persons holding office or working for the government to swear an oath of allegiance:
David Kalauokalani, as described below in an article published in The San Francisco Call, was the President of the Hawaiian Political Association. In this article, he endorses a statement issued by James Keauiluna Kaulia which reads:
I honestly assert from an intimate knowledge of the Hawaiian people that they, men and women, as a race and nation, are emphatically opposed to the annexation of Hawaii to the United States of America or to any other nation. We love our independence too dearly.
Kalauokalani had been the president of Hui Kālaiʻāina, and Kaulia the president of Hui Aloha ʻĀina. In 1900, the two groups joined together as a political party called the Independent Home Rule Party. Noenoe K. Silva, Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism 161 (2004). For nearly ten years, Kalauokalani served as their President. See “Kalauokalani No More Leads Home Rulers,” Hawaiian Gazette (Sept. 26, 1905), pg. 1.
Prior to Kalauokalani’s leadership in the Home Rule party, he was a district court judge. In the next blog entry, we examine this in more detail.
September 13, 2007: Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
On September 13, 2007, the U.N. General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. G.A. Res. 61/295, U.N. Doc. A/RES/61/295 (Sept. 13, 2007). After years of advocacy, the right of self-determination was finally extended to indigenous peoples. At the time, four states voted against the Declaration: the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. I heartily encourage our readers to look at Professor Melody MacKenzie’s insightful article entitled, “The U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Part I,” contained in Ka Huli Ao’s newsletter, Ka Moaʻe.
September 10, 1877: Regarding the Constitution of the Land Acquisition Association of Wainiha
As explained by Adam Roversi in his article entitled, The Hawaiian Land Hui Movement: A Post-māhele Counter-Revolution in Land Tenure and Community Resource Management, “[i]n 1869, seventy-one Hawaiians joined together to purchase virtually the entire 15,000-acre ahupuaʻa of Wainiha on the Island of Kauaʻi. Although they held title to the land as private property, they did so communally, sharing the use and management of the unoccupied and uncultivated portions of the ahupuaʻa including the near shore fishery.” This group was known as Hui Kuai Aina o Wainiha. Nearly 80 years later in 1947, this Hui was forcibly broken apart in partition proceedings initiated by McBryde Sugar Company.
Below are short excerpts of the original organizing document entitled, “Kumukanawai o ka Hui Kuai Aina o Wainiha.” A transcription follows.
Queen Liliʻuokalani, the Hawaiian Kingdom’s last reigning monarch, was born on September 2, 1838. To celebrate her 180th birthday, Punawaiola presents a mele found in the Foreign Office and Executive Numbered collection entitled “Liliuonamoku” (affectionately, Liliʻu of the Islands). Transcriptions are provided below.
With apologies, last week’s blog postings were temporarily halted due to closures related to our preparations for Hurricane Lane. Our servers were shut down for four days as we prepared for an incoming category 5 hurricane. The storm drenched parts of our state with an estimated 3-4 feet of rainfall. The National Weather Service reported that the rain associated with Hurricane Lane produced the “third highest storm total rainfall from a tropical cyclone in the United States since 1950.” We are back on schedule this week and we thank you for your patience!