Iulai 26, 1843: Letter from Kekūanāoʻa to Rear Admiral Richard Thomas
On July 31, 2018, we will be celebrating the 175th anniversary of Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea, Sovereignty Restoration Day. The following correspondence documents the initial meetings leading up to this momentous occasion.
The first letter, which was translated from English into Hawaiian by G.P. Judd, was authored by Rear Admiral Thomas. The response to this letter was authored by Kekūanāoʻa. Transcriptions for both letters are below.
July 21-23, 1849: Regarding Sovereignty Restoration Day
On July 21, 1849, a circular was disseminated to various diplomats and dignitaries to celebrate the sixth anniversary of Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (Sovereignty Restoration Day). The circular stated in part, “Tuesday the 31st instant will be kept, as a National Holiday, in celebration of the Sixth Anniversary of the Restoration of these Islands . . . .” The circular directed readers to the notice published in the Polynesian for further “particulars.”
Below are a few of the responses from various consulates in the Kingdom, including Chile, France, Hamburg, Bremen, Peru, and Denmark. The circular and the diplomatic responses are available in the Foreign Office and Executive Collection here.
On July 22, 1863, the King of Italy and the King of Hawaiʻi entered into a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation. Below are the signatures and seals of the Plenipotentiaries for Hawaiʻi and Italy. An English transcription follows.
Below is a letter from Kealoha Kaikuahine to Chief Justice A.F. Judd. The letter requests advice in regards to a previous case that had been heard by the district court in North Kohala. The matter, which involved a “horse dispute” was referred to the Attorney General. Below is an excerpt from this rather lengthy letter:
On July 20, 1864, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi entered into a treaty of friendship and commerce with the Swiss Confederation. Below are two pages from the treaty. A transcription for the French column is provided below by Brittanie Nery:
et de commerce
Sa majesté le Roi Hawaiien
la Confédération Suisse.
Sa majesté le Roi Hawaiien
la Confédération Suisse
En foi de quoi
les plénipotentiaires respectifs
ont signé le Traité et y ont
apposé leurs sceaux
Ainsi fais par duplicata
à Berne le vingtième jour
de juillet mille huit cent
Le Plénipotentiaire Hawaiien:
/s/ JOHN BOWRING
Le Plénipotentiaire Suisse:
/s/ Col. F. FREY FLEROSEE
July 18, 1870: A Law for Carrying “Fowling Pieces” (and other firearms)
The following law was passed on July 18, 1870 for the protection of kolea (and other helpful birds). The indiscriminate use of firearms had resulted in over-hunting. In turn, this was harmful to Hawaiʻi’s agricultural and pastoral industries because these birds consumed pests. Because the previous 1859 law was largely ineffective, this law specified that a license was necessary to use and carry firearms for sporting purposes. The cost of that license was $5.00.
In July of 1839, Captain Laplace of the French frigate L’Artémise, arrived in the islands under orders to put an end to the persecution of Catholics in the Hawaiian Kingdom. King Kauikeaouli issued the Edict of Toleration on July 17, 1839, and paid $20,000 as a guarantee of “his future conduct towards France.” Additionally, the treaty ensured the release of all imprisoned Catholics, and established the creation of a site for a Catholic Church. The church was required to be located in a port frequented by the French, and ministered by a French priest.
Below are excerpts from the 1839 treaty between the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and France. A transcription of the Hawaiian language follows.
In 1824, King Liholiho and Queen Kamāmalu journeyed to London to negotiate an alliance with England. Almost the entire royal party developed measles within weeks of arrival. On July 14, 1824, King Liholiho, aged 27, succumbed to complications related to measles. Queen Kamāmalu, who was only 22, had died just a few days prior on July 8.
Below is the Report of Physicians, issued by Doctors Henry Holland and Hugh Ley. The sad report indicates that King Liholiho changed “materially for the worse” after the death of his beloved wife.
July 13, 1874: Amendments to the 1864 Constitution
On July 13, 1874, King Kalākaua approved two amendments to the 1864 Constitution. One of the major amendments related to the requirement that qualified voters possess real property valued at $150 or more. Besides the property requirement change, the amendments also included changes in punctuation (Hawaiian and English versions) and in wording (English version).
Below are copies of the Hawaiian amendments with an accompanying transcription: